the domination of communism in the world

Stalin's death

Powyższe materiały to stopklatki z filmu o sygn.. IPN BU PF 2361/345

However, Stalin did not succeed in this. He died on March 5, 1953, enrolling in history as one
of the bloodiest criminals in history. His successor, Nikita Khrushchev, put forward a
programme of limited political reforms, weakening the terror that had been raging for years,
condemning loudly the 'distortion of Stalinism' and formulating the concept of peaceful
coexistence with the capitalist world. This systemic thaw led to a series of unrest in the block
of states dependent on the USSR, which took the form of worker demonstrations (June 1953
in the GDR, June 1956 in Poland) and sometimes even anti-communist uprisings (Hungary in
October and November 1956), which were bloodily suppressed. It also significantly worsened
relations with the second largest state in the socialist camp, the People's Republic of China,
Mao Zedong, which even turned into a border conflict. Nevertheless, Khrushchev managed to
finally control the situation and keep the whole Soviet bloc in check. In the subordinate states
of popular democracy, which until now had been mercilessly exploited and transformed in the
style of the Bolshevik revolution, some liberalisation of the system was allowed and a small
margin of independence in internal politics was left.

I sekretarz KC KPZR Nikita Chruszczow i I sekretarz KC PZPR Władysław Gomułka podczas spotkania - zbliżenie. Chruszczow ma na klapie marynarki nieustalone order Międzynarodowej Leninowskiej Nagrody Pokoju, a na lewej piersi 2 ordery Bohatera Związku Radzieckiego

However, the so-called Cold War, which has been going on since 1945, and which was an
undeclared conflict with the Western countries led by the United States, is not over. On the
contrary. In 1962, during the Cuban crisis, nuclear war had almost broken out, when the
United States intelligence discovered the Soviet attempt to place ballistic missiles in the area
ruled by Fidel Castro - Cuba. The conflict was finally resolved but the crisis became a clear
proof that the doctrine of peaceful coexistence is only a propaganda fantasy and that the two
nuclear-armed superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union, by no means renounced
their rivalry for the primacy of the world. The war between the blocs was de facto waged, but
indirectly also in other continents - South America, Africa, and Asia Minor - where both
countries used local animosities and conflicts to expand their own spheres of influence. Only
the awareness that an open war would mean a nuclear cataclysm prevented the leaders of the
USSR and the USA from having an open confrontation.

This situation continued after Nikita Khrushchev was removed from power and Leonid
Brezhnev took over the helm of Soviet rule. The period of his rule, which fell in the second
half of the 1960s and 1970s, was marked by the further gradual liberalisation of the system
while attempting to maintain the empire's possessions. Hence, the 1968 invasion of
Czechoslovakia, which went too far in its reforms, was carried out by the forces of the Soviet Army supported by the armies of the states of the bloc associated in the alliance - the so-
called Warsaw Pact. This was to be evidence of the unwavering unity and sustainability of the
alliance. The so-called Brezhnev doctrine, announced shortly afterwards, sanctioned similar
actions in the future as well, directly declaring the block states' dependence on the socialist
community which was emanated primarily by the Soviet Union.

In the internal policy of the USSR, the 1960s and 1970s were a period of slow but stable
economic growth. This was the first time in its history that the Soviet Union had produced
more consumer goods than industrial ones, which had a significant impact on the quality of
life of its citizens. Although the characteristics of a strictly police state continued to be
preserved, some liberalisation also took place in the area of social policy. Selected citizens of
the Soviet Union were allowed to travel abroad, outside the block of states of folk democracy.
This somewhat revived economic relations with the West but did not lead to a greater easing
of tensions resulting from the Cold War, which is still ongoing. The arms race continued to
drive, and the development of rocket technology to explore and conquer space became a new
field for confrontation.