The internal and international situation made it clear that the Communists could not use force
against their own society. Communism was in decline, not only in Hungary but throughout the
bloc. New groups began to form: the intellectual movement of the Hungarian Democratic
Forum, the Union of Free Democrats (Fidesz), and the previously liquidated parties were
The communists began talks with the opposition at the so-called triangular table. On the one
hand, there was the communist side, on the other hand, representatives of social organisations,
and the third side was the President of Parliament, who chaired the debates. The talks started
on 13 June 1989, just nine days after the partially free elections in Poland.
An important date is 16 June, when the Imre Nagy funeral took place. It was attended by
250,000 Hungarians. Officially Nagy was rehabilitated on 6 July 1989, the same day as János
On 18 September the final document containing the decision to hold completely free elections
was signed. On 7 October 1989 the Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party was dissolved, and the
Hungarian Socialist Party was established. The constitution was amended, and the Republic
of Hungary was proclaimed on 23 October.
The first free and democratic elections were held on 25 March (first round) and 8 April
(second round) 1990. The winner was the Hungarian Democratic Forum (42%). The Union of
Free Democrats (24%) and the Hungarian Socialist Party (9%) followed. Arpad Gonch, a
democratic opposition activist, became president on 3 August. Communism in Hungary has
come to an end.