the domination of communism in the world

The Hungarian Republic of Councils

The failure of the central states during the First World War had irreversible consequences for
the history of Europe. Even during the war, the disintegration of the Austro-Hungarian
Empire began, during which the independence of the nations inhabiting that empire came to
an end. The situation in Hungary in October 1918 favoured revolutionary moods. The
government was weak, the army and the administration collapsed. There followed further
changes in the government and the disintegration of the Habsburg monarchy. The society,
tired of the war, demanded reforms and putting an end to the fighting. On 16 November 1918,
the Republic of Hungary was established, breaking away from Austria. The following day,
Béla Kun, a social democratic party activist before the war, returned to the country from
Russian captivity. He started to unite the small groups of the extreme left and quickly formed
the Hungarian Communist Party. On 21 March 1919, the Hungarian Soviet Republic (HSR)
was established, where power was quickly taken over by the communists who eliminated the
social democrats. Initially, the governments of the HSR enjoyed strong public support which
was soon lost, following the Bolshevik models. Repression, nationalisation of the economy,
misguided agricultural reform, the attack on the Church, chaos in education, confiscation of
wealth and intimidation of society all quickly discouraged Hungarians from supporting the
The Entente states, afraid of spreading the virus of communism to neighbouring countries
weakened by the war, decided to act. Part of Hungary was occupied, and Czechoslovak and

Romanian troops were allowed to enter the fighting which ended in the defeat of the
Magyars. In the end, the Republic of Hungary of the Councils collapsed on 1 August 1919
and the short communist rule cost the lives of some 590 people. The power in Hungary was
soon taken over by Admiral Miklós Horthy, who held it until 1944. Immediately after the
defeat of the communists, a period of "white terror" began, i.e. the blurring of traces of their
short reigns.