the domination of communism in the world

The fall of the GDR

The general crisis in the Eastern Bloc in the 1980s and the Soviet reforms of Gorbachev also
heralded changes in eastern Germany, although Honecker rejected any plans to liberalise
communism. In 1985, the "Initiative for Peace and Human Rights" was launched, which was
the leading organisation of the emerging opposition. The first major demonstration was
scheduled for 17 January 1988 in Berlin. However, most of the participants were arrested
before the banners were developed. The breakthrough point was the municipal elections of 7
May 1989 - the incentives from the opposition to boycott them met with a considerable
response, but the SED announced that the turnout was 99%. Such a blatant lie was a final
straw. Changes in other countries, including Poland, showed that the changes demanded by
the East German society could be made. More and more crowds of demonstrators were
gathering in the streets, which were no longer dispersed by the militias. Apart from the
demonstrations, the inhabitants of the GDR fled the country on a large scale, among others via
Hungary, to Austria.

On October 18, 1989, Honecker was dismissed from the post of party leader, which only
partially satisfied the "eastern Germans". During subsequent protests, there were voices
demanding the reunification of Germany. The biggest demonstration, on 4th November in
Berlin, attracted almost a million people. On the night of 9-10 November 1989, the Berlin
Wall collapsed. A mass exodus from East Germany to West Germany started. In this situation,
on 7 December 1989, the authorities began a dialogue with the opposition. It was decided to
hold free parliamentary elections (18 March 1990), in which Christian democracies from the
CDU won (48%) before socialists from the SPD (over 21%) and the successor of the SED -
the Party of Democratic Socialism (16%). Finally, on October 3, 1990, Germany was united.