In 1945 the Allied winners (USSR, USA, France, Great Britain) divided the territory of
Germany (and Berlin) into 4 occupation zones. The American and British zones were merged
as early as 1947 to form the so-called Bison region. In 1949, the French occupation zone was
also incorporated into it, creating Trizpnia, soon to be renamed the Federal Republic of
Germany (Germany). In the same year, the USSR formed the German Democratic Republic
(GDR) from its occupation zone. Previously occupied by four powers, Berlin had become one
of the first places where the democratic world and the communist world confronted each
other. In 1948-1949, the Soviets began to block West Berlin, cutting off the city from land-
based supplies. This was due to the currency reform in the Allied Occupation Zone and the
introduction of the German brand, without any agreement with the USSR.
The Allies supported the Berliners by sending goods via an air bridge. Two German states
were created because of the impossibility of reaching an agreement between the two sides,
giving rise to the Cold War.
The Socialist Party for German Unity (SPGU) founded in 1946 held power in the GDR. Since
1950, its leader was Walter Ulbricht, who began reforms in accordance with the spirit of
Stalinism: shifting the burden of the economy to heavy industry, fighting the church,
collectivization of agriculture and centralization of power.
After the end of the war, internment camps for Nazis were established in the Soviet
occupation zone. The infrastructure of the German concentration camps (e.g. Buchenwald and
Sachsenhausen) was used and the Soviet gulags were an organizational model. However, it
was not only the Nazis who were imprisoned there. There were also people who opposed the
new communist order, priests, intellectuals, and entrepreneurs. From 1945 to 1950, 120,000 -
180,000 people were interned in the camps, 40,000 - 65,000 of whom died.
The first years of the GDR's existence in a ruined Germany were particularly difficult. In June
1953, a great strike of workers broke out who rebelled against further price rises and an
increase in the workload. It spread out in approx. 600 workplaces and public buildings have
been occupied in some cities. A state of emergency was imposed in the GDR and the
suppression of the strike by the Soviet Army resulted in more than 50 deaths and about 13 000