The Gorbachev reforms in the USSR and deteriorating economic situation of the entire
Eastern Bloc also caused changes in Czechoslovakia. Despite the acceleration of successive
anti-communist demonstrations, society was taking to the streets more and more
courageously. On November 17, 1989, a demonstration commemorating the 50th anniversary
of the closure of Czech universities by the Germans was held with the consent of the
authorities. The situation was exacerbated by false information about the death of one of the
More and more demonstrations and strikes began. Meanwhile, the Civic Forum, a political
movement seeking to democratise a country led by Václav Havel, one of the initiators of
Charter 77, was set up; the Communists, aware of the very difficult situation they were in,
removed the leadership of the Communist Party from the Constitution and removed the most
discredited politicians from power.
The authorities no longer had the power to suppress the revolution, hence they accepted
changes. On 28 December 1989, Dubček became President of the Federal Assembly and the
following day, Václav Havel was proclaimed President of Czechoslovakia. Communism
eventually collapsed, Czechoslovakia became a parliamentary democracy. These events are
called the "Velvet Revolution" since the system change took place in a bloodless way.
In 1993 Czechoslovakia broke up into two separate states: the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
After the abolition of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, the Communist Party of
Bohemia and Moravia was established, which, interestingly, continues to gain support at a
level of several percent and its politicians sit in parliament.