In September 1938, under Hitler's pressure, four countries - Germany, Italy, France and the
United Kingdom - signed the so-called Munich Agreement, under which a large part of
Czechoslovak lands was incorporated into Germany. The fall of Czechoslovakia had begun.
In March 1939, the Third Reich took over the rest of the country, occupying the Czech
Republic (Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia) and creating a formally sovereign but in
practice completely dependent on Germany, Slovak Republic. During World War II, the
Czechs and Slovaks expressed their opposition to the German occupation. In 1942, they
successfully assassinated Reinhard Heydrich, the Protector of Bohemia and Moravia and two
years later, an uprising broke out in Slovakia which was suppressed after two months. On
May 5, 1945, an uprising broke out in Prague with Czech communists playing a significant
role. It ended in the liberation of the capital.