Bulgaria, 30 years after its independence from the Ottoman Empire, established a tsarist
regime in 1908. Between 1912 and 1913, Bulgaria emerged weakened during the Balkan
wars. Hence, during the First World War it stood on the side of the central states. As a result
of its defeat, it lost part of its territory (including access to the Aegean Sea).
After the war, in 1919, the Bulgarian People's Peasant Association (BPPS) took over power,
and its leader, Aleksandyr Stambolijski, became its prime minister. The period called “green
communism” began. The BPPS strived for self-governance by holding further elections in
1920 and 1923, which it won. Interestingly, the Communist Party was second in these
elections. However, the situation in Bulgaria was increasingly tense and the number of
opponents of the Istanbul Government was increasing. In June 1923, it was overthrown by a
military coup d'état supported by Tsar Boris III. The leader of the BPPS, Istanbul, was
Opposing the coup d'état, in September 1923 the Bulgarian communists carried out the so-
called “September Uprising”. In order to suppress them, the government imposed martial law.
Although the rush was short, it became an important symbol for the communist movement in
Bulgaria. It killed between 5,000 and 20,000 people. He also started a period called “white
terror”, where repressions fell on insurgents and communist politicians. It ended with the
banning of the Communist Party in 1924.
Despite the ban, the Communists have not ceased their activities in Bulgaria. Their radical
wing organised a failed attack on Tsar Boris III, in which two people from his surroundings
were killed. The murder of General Konstantin Georgiev was another plan for the
assassination of the Head of State. The conspirators were convinced that the tsar would appear
at his funeral. A bomb attack was prepared in the Church of St. Sunday in Sofia. On the 16
April 1925, just after the beginning of the ceremony, a bomb exploded. More than 200 people
were killed, including the mayor of Sofia, the head of the capital's police force and 11
generals. The tsar himself survived because he was late for the funeral. His car was only just
about to reach the church when the explosion erupted.
Bulgaria remained a monarchy but moved towards a dictatorship. In May 1934, as a result of
a coup d'état, he took over the Military Union and the Zveno Political Circle.
During World War II she took the side of Germany, acquiring small territories. On March 1,
1941, Bulgaria joined the “pact of the three”, i.e. the countries of the Axis. Importantly, it did
not take part in the war against the USSR.