Germany's capitulation in May 1945 did not mean the end of the civil war in Yugoslavia
itself, which had been marked by the progression of bloody ethnic cleansing for four years.
The time had come for the Croatians, Slovenians, and Serbs of General Nedić with whom the
Chetniks had been made equal to, all collaborating with the occupiers, to be held
accountable for. It is estimated that between 1941 and 1946 more than one million people
died as a result of mass pogroms of the Serbian people in the puppet state of Croatia and
Croats in Serbian territories. The communists also played a significant role in the massacres,
mercilessly dealing with political opponents, both collaborators with the occupiers and
simply opposing the communists of the country (collectively they were referred to as
fascists). This was in the form of strictly planned and thought-out actions; both during and
after the war. However, the real escalations were brought about only by the first post-war
months. A network of concentration camps was set up throughout the country for
opponents of the new government. The Slovenian and Croatian collaborators denounced by
Western Allies were murdered in so-called death marches or mass executions (such as near
Koćevja in Slovenia, where between 20 and 30 thousand of the Slovenian White Guard
members were murdered at one time).
In 1946, the Chetniks’ leader, Colonel Dragoljub Mihajlović was also arrested and after a
parody of a trial, to which the defence had not even been admitted, he was shot on July 17.
In spite of this, the last units of Chetniks and the anti-communist partisans were still active
until the beginning of the 1950s.