Having got rid of the hated right-wing opposition, famous for the myth of national liberation
struggle, communists of Josip Broz Tito could thus begin to establish a Soviet system in
Yugoslavia. Only the commitment made by Tito with the Yugoslavian government
representative in exile, Ivan Šubasić, was an obstacle to achieving this goal. Under this
agreement, the new government was to include representatives of the legal authorities in
London in its composition as well. At the beginning of 1945, this actually happened. The new
government, mostly composed of representatives of AVNOJ, also included three ministers
from the authorities in exile, with Šubasić himself as the minister of foreign affairs. However,
as the communist local structures became stronger and stronger, the cooperation only took
on the form of a game of appearances.
This was reflected in the preparations for the first post-war Legislative Assembly elections.
The Communists used the old, proven Bolshevik methods, acting through intimidation and
terror, of the newly established secret political police - the Department for the People
Defence (Yug. OZNA), later renamed the State Security Service (Yug. UDBA). The opposition
was banned from campaigning and publishing its own magazines, and Šubasić himself was
subjected to house arrest. In such a situation, the opposition decided to announce a boycott
of the elections, which did not prevent them from taking place in November 1945. It is not
difficult to guess how overwhelming the victory of the communists was in such
circumstances - they won 90% of the vote and all the seats in the Legislative Assembly, with
Regardless of any obstacles, the Legislative Assembly subordinated to the communists
passed a new constitution of the Federative Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia in January 1946.
Its provisions abolished the monarchy and introduced nationalisation of industry, basing and
drawing heavily on the solutions of the USSR Constitution of 1936. In general, the socio-
political transformations of Yugoslavia in the years 1945-1949 were taking place strictly
according to the Stalinist model. The country was in a much better situation, however, as it
was not de facto occupied and plundered by the Red Army in view of the powerful force of
its own partisan troops, which liberated most of the country and later transformed it into a
regular Yugoslav army. Nevertheless, the material and biological damage resulting from four
years of occupation and civil war were terrible and it was the reconstruction from war
damage that became the main objective of the new communist government.
The main emphasis in the first phase of reconstruction was on the industrialisation and
electrification of the country, trying to even out as far as possible the civilisation differences
between the individual republics. While the nationalisation of industry was carried out with
virtually no problems, the collectivisation proved to be much more difficult due to the
resistance of peasants. In the end, it was stopped in 1953, and four years later it was
abandoned at all, allowing peasants to own the land, provided it did not exceed 10 ha.